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1- University of Tehran , hadismusazadeh@yahoo.com
2- University of Tehran
Abstract:   (62 Views)
Objective: Professionals rely on criteria from the American Psychiatric Association (APA), Diagnostic and Statistical Manual Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), to determine whether an individual has attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The DSM-5 recognizes three subtype of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: predominantly inattentive type, predominantly hyperactive-impulsive type and combined type. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is widely recognized as one of the most frequent reasons, if not the most frequent reason. Children are referred for behavioral problems to guidance clinics. Research showed that children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder have problem in executive functions of attention and working memory in camper with normal children. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder affects all aspect of individual's life. Unfortunately, the negative learning status experienced by children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is difficult to overcome and is usually long-lasting. At seems that cognitive rehabilitation program based on prospective could reduce problems of executive functions of attention and working memory and improvement educational skills of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Cognitive rehabilitation program based on prospective memory is one method for treating children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder because these children are often facing problem in executive functions of attention and working memory. The purpose of the present study was investigate of the effectiveness of cognitive rehabilitation program based on prospective memory on the executive functions of attention and working memory in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in Kermanshah city.
Materials & Methods: The present research was a semi-experimental study with pre-test, post-test design and control group. The participants were 32 male children aged 8-11 years with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder from schools in Kermanshah city using an available method. Subjects were divided into experimental and control groups, each group consisting of 16 children. The experimental group received 18 sessions of cognitive rehabilitation program based on prospective memory and the control group did not. The instruments were done using the Stroop color-word test and Working memory test battery for children (WMTB-C). Stroop color-word test and Working memory test battery for children were completed by researcher for all subjects in pre-test and post-test. Data were collected through the questionnaires before and after the training sessions. Multivariate analysis of covariance was used by SPSS (version 23) for analyzing the data.
Results: The first, normality of variables and contingency of variance and covariance assumptions were tested. The Kolmogorov Smirnov test showed that all variables were normal (P> 0/05). Also, Box test confirmed contingency of variance-covariance assumption. So, assumptions of MANCOVA test confirmed and can be used the MANCOVA test for analysis of data. The results of MANCOVA showed that cognitive rehabilitation program based on prospective memory had a significant effect on the executive functions and results of ANCOVA showed that cognitive rehabilitation program based on prospective memory had a significant effect on working memory of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (P<0.0001). The results also revealed that cognitive rehabilitation program based on prospective memory had a significant effect on all subscales of executive functions (correct responses, incorrect responses, no responses, reaction time of congruent words or reaction time of incongruent words respectively) in these children (P<0.0001). It can be stated that according to Eta square 68%, 66%, 59%, 61% and 53%, of variations in components such as correct responses, incorrect responses, no responses, reaction time of congruent words or reaction time of incongruent words respectively can be explained by the subjects’ participation in cognitive rehabilitation program based on prospective memory. Also, can be said that according to Eta square 61% of variations in working memory can be explained by the subjects’ participation in cognitive rehabilitation program based on prospective memory.
Conclusion: Cognitive rehabilitation program based on prospective memory can increase executive functions and improve the working memory of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. It is recommended that planning cognitive rehabilitation program based on prospective memory for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder receives serious attention.
 
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Type of Study: Original | Subject: Exceptional Children Psychology
Received: 4/09/2018 | Accepted: 19/01/2019

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