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1- Ph.D. Student of Psychology and Education of Exceptional Children, Faculty of Psychology and Education, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran , jalili.abkenar@gmail.com
2- Department of Psychology and Education of Exceptional Children, Faculty of Psychology and Education, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
Abstract:   (141 Views)
Objective: Intellectual disability affects all aspect of individual's life. Although intellectual disability children have a low potential, the educational environment, living environment and relationships with their friends, especially their parents, have an important role in their potential abilities. Considering the limitations and problems of intellectual disability children in the working memory, it is very important to prepare programs that enhance the ability of this group of people working memory. One of the most important factors in the accurate study of cognitive development and memory improvement is active participation in leisure time. Leisure time is an important issue that is one of the main elements of human needs in today's life, and the use of the leisure-time program is rich and proportional to effective results. Leisure time program has been associated with effective outcomes. Present study was aimed to determine the effectiveness of enriched and proportional Arsh Leisure time program on the profile of working memory of students with intellectual disability.
 Materials & Methods: The present research was a semi-experimental study with pre-test, post-test design and control group. The participants were 30 girl students with intellectual disability from exceptional schools in Isfahan city using randomly method. Subjects were divided into experimental and control groups, each group consisting of 15 students. The experimental group received 16 sessions of Arsh leisure time program (two sessions weekly; each lasts for 60 minutes) and the control group did not. The instruments were working memory test battery for children (2017). Data were collected through the scales before and after the training sessions. Multivariate analysis of covariance was used by SPSS (version 23) for analyzing the data.
Results: The first, normality of variables and contingency of variance and covariance assumptions were tested. The Kolmogorov Smirnov test showed that all variables were normal (P> 0/05). Also, Box test confirmed contingency of variance-covariance assumption. So, assumptions of MANCOVA test confirmed and can be used the MANCOVA test for analysis of data. The results showed that Arsh leisure time program had a significant effect on the working memory (P<0.0001). The results also revealed that Arsh leisure time program had a significant effect on profile working memory (central executive, visual spatial sketchpad and phonological lop) in these subjects (P<0.001). It can be said that according to Eta square 63%, 61%, and 68% of variations in variables such as central executive, visual spatial sketchpad and phonological lop respectively, can be explained by participation of students with intellectual disability in Arsh Leisure time program.
Conclusion: According to the findings, Arsh leisure time program improved working memory, of students with intellectual disability. So, this program can be used to improve working memory, of these students and planning for providing of Arsh leisure time program for them have particular importance.
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Type of Study: Original | Subject: Exceptional Children Psychology
Received: 18/07/2018 | Accepted: 22/10/2018

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