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1- Faculty of Physical Education & sport sciences, University of Guilan
2- Faculty of Physical Education & sport sciences, University of Guilan , zareei.h@yahoo.com
Abstract:   (152 Views)
Objectives. Damage to parts of the vestibulocochlear nerve not only results in sensorineural hearing loss and deafness, but may also lead to balance problems due to damage to the vestibular system. This is the reason why the hearing-impaired and deaf subjects are struggling with balance problems. Given the ever-increasing development of the adaptive sports, specific to the deaf, who are considered as part of the active individuals in community, detailed studies are required to be done on the balance of the deaf, which is an important part of routine activities and sport performances. Therefore, this study generally aims to investigate the balance skills of the deaf in comparison to their normal counterparts.
Methodology. In this study, a comprehensive review on ‘the balance of the deaf’ has been carried out by searching English databases, such as Science Direct PubMed,، COCHRANCE REVIEW، TRIP، pedro، EMBASE, CINAHL, and Google Scholar, for the following keywords: Deaf, Postural control in Deaf Hearing Loss, Deafness, Balance, and Balance in Deaf. In addition, Persian databases, such as MAGIRAN, IRANDOC, IranMedex, MedLib, Sid, and Google Scholar, were searched for the following keywords: Balance in the deaf, postural control in the deaf, deaf, congenital deaf, and balance, from 1932 to June 2018. Moreover, unable to find articles online, manual searching and full reviewing of resources of the articles were carried out to find the respective articles. Articles were narrowed down and sorted out by the titles such as English language, Persian language, Human, Original article, and Review article. After collecting the search results, the articles’ titles and abstracts were studied, respectively. If the articles were in line with the inclusion and exclusion criteria, their results would be employed in the review study; otherwise, they would be excluded.
Findings. Based on the criteria and objectives of the research, 51 articles were selected after the evaluation stages. Forty-eight papers were provided in full text and the rest were summarized. In general, the balance of the deaf was investigated in three different modes including 1) a comparison of the balance of the deaf with that of the normal counterparts, 2) the effect of age on the balance of the deaf, and 3) the effect of the training protocols on the balance of the deaf.
Conclusion. The deaf appears to be struggling with balance problems when the vestibular system information is the only sensory source available; however, when the information of the proprioception and vision systems is available to the deaf, there can be no balance problem as compared to normal counterparts. Several studies have also shown that the deaf, as they age, make up for the balance impairment resulting from vestibular fibrillation with proprioception and vision systems; it also appears that their proprioception and vision systems are better than or equal to those of their normal counterparts. However, it has not been determined yet that, in the aging deaf, which proprioception system dominates and contributes to maintaining the balance of the deaf better than other systems. Furthermore, a review of studies has shown that all training programs and rehabilitation protocols have positive effect on the balance of the deaf; however, it has not been determined yet which training programs have a long and lasting effect on the balance of the deaf, and few studies have been carried out in this area. In addition, the use of balance tests, which examine the balance and extent of the effect of training protocols on balance, is the same as that used in other community groups, which may be inappropriate for measuring the deaf balance, since it is still not clear which motion strategies have been employed by the deaf to maintain balance. Therefore, for the final conclusion about the balance of the deaf, basic studies should be conducted on the proper tests to properly measure the balance of the deaf so that accurate and high-quality reports on the balance of the deaf can be achieved.
 
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Type of Study: Review | Subject: Rehabilitation
Received: 10/07/2018 | Accepted: 4/11/2018

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