Volume 19, Issue 2 (Summer 2018)                   Vol. , No. , Season & Year , Serial No. | Back to browse issues page

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Farazi M, Kamkary K, Hassanzade Noghani A. A Survey on Cognitive Functions of Students With Stuttering. jrehab. 2018; 19 (2) :160-167
URL: http://rehabilitationj.uswr.ac.ir/article-1-2300-en.html
1- Department of Speech Therapy, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran. , mfarazi80@gmail.com
2- PhD Department of Education and Consultation, Islamshahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
3- Department of Education and Consultation, Faculty of Literature Humanities and Social Sciences, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
Abstract:   (200 Views)
Objective Stuttering is one of the most common speech disorders that generate many complications in children and adults. This disorder involves behavioral, cognitive and emotional interactions. So, the purpose of the current study is to investigate the cognitive functions of students with stuttering.
Materials & Methods A descriptive study, comprising of 30 students (8 females and 22 males) from different educational levels (preschool, elementary and junior high school), was conducted. Study subjects were selected by an available sampling method from the students referred to speech therapy clinics and psychological counseling and rehabilitation centers in Tehran city. The subjects were assessed by using Tehran-Stanford-Binet intelligence scale. This tool consists of verbal and non-verbal domains; each of the fields has five subscales of fluid reasoning, knowledge, quantitative reasoning, visual-spatial processing and working memory. It also has the ability to deliver 8 IQs, including IQs of fluid reasoning, knowledge IQ, quantitative reasoning IQ, visual-spatial processing IQ, working memory IQ, verbal IQ, nonverbal IQ, and general IQ in the age range of 2 to 85 years. Credit coefficients exceed 90% among the ten subscales of this intelligence test. The duration of the test for each person varied from quarter of an hour to one and a half hours. Average scores of the experiment were acquired, and data analysis was performed with SPSS software version 19. Student’s t-test was conducted to compare, review and analyze the theoretical averages obtained from standardization processes of the test.
Results The results of the study indicated that the general IQ and verbal IQ of the students with stuttering was above the average (expected level) (P<0.001) and their nonverbal IQ was average (P<0.202). The fluid reasoning IQ (P<0.001), quantitative reasoning IQ (P<0.020), knowledge IQ (P<0.037), and visual-spatial processing IQ (P<0.001) of the students were above average while the working memory IQ was average. Notably, there was no significant difference at the α=0.01 level between theoretical meanings and the experimental mean of working memory IQ and non-verbal IQ in stuttering students; these two IQs in these students were moderate in society. Children with stuttering showed a weaker performance in some aspects of working memory compared to normal children of their age. In describing the working memory of children with stuttering, we can mention the role of phonological input and output reservoirs. Children with stuttering are more likely to have phonological input reservoirs, which is very important in the speech and working memory process. Therefore, the ability of this reservoir leads to strong repetition of words, and it seems that although these children have difficulty expressing words and speech, their memory function is increased from moderate to expected level because of the frequency of words in their phonological input reservoir.
Conclusion Findings from this study showed that working memory IQ of students with stuttering is weaker than the IQs of intelligence (four constituent agents); in spite of speech disorder, general IQ and IQs of fluid reasoning, quantitative reasoning, knowledge and visual-spatial processing of these students with stuttering are above average, and they have a good background for teaching and learning.
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Type of Study: Original | Subject: Speech & Language Pathology
Received: 1/11/2017 | Accepted: 28/03/2018 | Published: 22/06/2018

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