Volume 19, Issue 2 (Summer 2018)                   Vol. , No. , Season & Year , Serial No. | Back to browse issues page

XML Persian Abstract Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Nodehi Moghadam A, Vahabi S P, Norasteh A A, Abolhasani H. Comparing Isometric Strengths of Shoulder Girdle Muscles in Females With and Without Scapular Dyskinesis. jrehab. 2018; 19 (2) :92-101
URL: http://rehabilitationj.uswr.ac.ir/article-1-2207-en.html
1- Department of Physiotherapy, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran. , afsoonnodehi@gmail.com
2- Department of Physiotherapy, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
3- Department of Physical Education, Faculty of Physical Education, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran.
Abstract:   (750 Views)
Objective Alteration of scapular position and motion is called scapular dyskinesis. Scapular dyskinesis is a common clinical problem. Strength of shoulder girdle muscles is important in shoulder motions and stability, so their weakness may lead to scapular dyskinesis. The aim of this study was to compare the maximum voluntary isometric force of shoulder girdle movements in subjects with and without scapular dyskinesis
Materials & Methods A case-control study was designed where the participants were selected by nonprobability sampling; 30 subjects with scapular dyskinesis and an average age of 22.95±2.62 years and 30 subjects without scapular dyskinesis and an average age of 22.43±2.50 years. The subjects were instructed to stand with their arms resting on each side of the body. The examiner stood behind them at a distance of 1.5 meter and asked them to elevate their arms to the highest level possible. Scapular dyskinesis test was used to visually examine alteration in scapulohumeral rhythm during arm elevation in sagittal and frontal planes. The shoulder flexion and abduction were repeated for 5 times. At the same time, the examiner rated the scapular movement as normal or observable dyskinesis. The maximal voluntary isometric force of shoulder internal and external rotation on both sides, such as “scaption with external rotation”, “scapular abduction and upward rotation”, “scapular adduction and downward rotation”, “scapular adduction” and “adduction and depression of scapula” were measured with manual Dynamometer. For determining the maximal shoulder isometric rotational force, subjects were positioned prone on tables, arm brought into 90º abduction in frontal plane with 90° elbow flexion and resistance given to distal forearm into shoulder external and internal rotations. The maximal isometric force of scaption (supraspinatus strength) was measured in seated position; shoulder elevated 70º into scapular plane abduction (scaption) with external rotation. The maximal isometric force of scapular abduction and upward rotation was determined in supine position while the arm was elevated to 90º flexion with elbow extension and resistance given against forward pushing. For determining the maximal isometric force of rhomboids and middle trapezius muscles, resistance was given against scapular adduction and downward rotation, and scapular adduction, respectively. The maximal isometric force of lower trapezius was determined in prone position while the arm was elevated to 135º shoulder elevation with elbow extension. Independent t-test was performed to compare the maximal voluntary isometric force of shoulder girdle motions in individuals with and without scapular dyskinesis.
Results The mean±SD of age, weight and height of the participants without and with scapular dyskinesis were 22.43±2.50 years/ 22.95±2.62 years, 64.39±13.38 kg/ 65.67(±12.2) kg and 171.35(±11.29) cm/ 173.43(±8.66) cm, respectively. No statistically significant differences were found between the participants of the two groups with regard to the age, weight and height. Our result showed that the isometric force of “scaption with external rotation”, “scapular abduction and external rotation”, “adduction and depression of scapula”, “scapular adduction and downward rotation” and “scapular adduction” were significantly different between the two groups (P<0.05). In comparison to the control group, the individual with scapular dyskinesis had weaker supraspinatus, serratus anterior, rhomboids and middle and lower trapezius muscles.
Conclusion Scapular dyskinesia or altered kinematics of the scapula (downward rotation, anterior tilt and internal rotation) contributes to impingement syndrome by decreasing the subacromial space. The tissues that occupy the subacromial space are the supraspinatus tendon, subacromial bursa and long head of the biceps brachii tendon. The supraspinatus is the major rotator cuff muscle that is susceptible to tendinopathy in subacromial space. The inflammatory processes or tension overload during shoulder activities, which may result from altered kinematics of the scapula and decrease in the subacromial space, may lead to supraspinatus weakness. It has been shown that scapular stabilizers, such as serratus anterior, rhomboids and middle and lower trapezius muscles are more prone to weakness than the other shoulder muscles. So, the weakness in these muscles may relate to scapular dyskinesis. Scapular muscle exercises are executed in the rehabilitation of patients with subacromial impingement syndrome and scapular dyskinesis, as the muscular system is one of the major contributors to scapular positioning, both at rest and during movements. It seems that improving the strength of shoulder girdle muscles especially supraspinatus, serratus anterior, rhomboids, and middle and lower trapezius muscles would be necessary in individual with scapular dyskinesis.
Full-Text [PDF 4065 kb]   (430 Downloads) |   |   Full-Text (HTML)  (82 Views)  
Type of Study: Original | Subject: Physical Therapy
Received: 12/01/2018 | Accepted: 4/05/2018 | Published: 22/06/2018

1. Steinberg N, Hershkovitz I, Zeev A, Rothschild B, Siev-Ner I. Joint hypermobility and joint range of motion in young dancers. Journal of Clinical Rheumatology. 2016; 22(4):171-8. [DOI:10.1097/RHU.0000000000000420] [DOI:10.1097/RHU.0000000000000420]
2. Warner JJ, Micheli LJ, Arslanian LE, Kennedy J, Kennedy R. Scapulothoracic motion in normal shoulders and shoulders with glenohumeral instability and impingement syndrome. A study using Moire topographic analysis. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research. 1992; (285):191-9. [PMID] [PMID]
3. Cools AM, Witvrouw EE, Declercq GA, Vanderstraeten GG, Cambier DC. Evaluation of isokinetic force production and associated muscle activity in the scapular rotators during a protraction-retraction movement in overhead athletes with impingement symptoms. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 2004; 38(1):64-8. [DOI:10.1136/bjsm.2003.004952] [DOI:10.1136/bjsm.2003.004952]
4. Hakim A, Grahame R. Joint hypermobility. Best Practice & Research: Clinical Rheumatology. 2003; 17(6):989-1004. [DOI:10.1016/j.berh.2003.08.001] [DOI:10.1016/j.berh.2003.08.001]
5. Cools AM, Struyf F, De Mey K, Maenhout A, Castelein B, Cagnie B. Rehabilitation of scapular dyskinesis: from the office worker to the elite overhead athlete. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 2014; 48(8):692-7. [DOI:10.1136/bjsports-2013-092148] [DOI:10.1136/bjsports-2013-092148]
6. Jeremiah HM, Alexander CM. Do hypermobile subjects without pain have alteration to the feedback mechanisms controlling the shoulder girdle? Musculoskeletal Care. 2010; 8(3):157-63. [DOI:10.1002/msc.178] [DOI:10.1002/msc.178]
7. Lugo R, Kung P, Ma CB. Shoulder biomechanics. European Journal of Radiology. 2008; 68(1):16-24. [DOI:10.1016/j.ejrad.2008.02.051] [DOI:10.1016/j.ejrad.2008.02.051]
8. Shakeri H, Keshavarz R, Arab AM, Tabatabai Ghosheh F, TalimKhani A. Scapular position and orientation during abduction, flexion and scapular plane elevation phase. Iranian Rehabilitation Journal. 2014; 12(1):22-30.
9. Sarabadani Tafreshi E, Nodehi Moghadam A, Bakhshi E, Rastgar M. Comparing scapular position and scapular dyskinesis in individuals with and without rounded shoulder posture.physical treatments. Specific Physical Therapy Journal. 2015; 5(3)127-136. [DOI:10.15412/J.PTJ.07050302] [DOI:10.15412/J.PTJ.07050302]
10. Shadmehr A, Khademolhosseini N, Bagheri H, Jalaei S. Reaction time and anticipatory skill of overhead athletes with and without scapular dyskinesia. Specific Physical Therapy Journal. 2014; 4(2):96-101.
11. Alibazi RJ, Moghadam AN, Cools AM, Bakhshi E, Ahari AA. The effect of shoulder muscle fatigue on acromiohumeral distance and scapular dyskinesis in women with generalized joint hypermobility. Journal of Applied Biomechanics. 2017; 33(6):424-30. [DOI:10.1123/jab.2016-0056] [DOI:10.1123/jab.2016-0056]
12. Moghadam AN, Salimee MM. A comparative study on scapular static position between females with and without generalized joint hyper mobility. Medical Journal of the Islamic Republic of Iran. 2012; 26(3):97-102. [PMID] [PMCID] [PMID] [PMCID]
13. Huang TS, Huang CY, Ou HL, Lin JJ. Scapular dyskinesis: Patterns, functional disability and associated factors in people with shoulder disorders. Manual Therapy. 2016; 26:165-71. [DOI:10.1016/j.math.2016.09.002] [DOI:10.1016/j.math.2016.09.002]
14. Merolla G, De Santis E, Campi F, Paladini P, Porcellini G. Supraspinatus and infraspinatus weakness in overhead athletes with scapular dyskinesis: Strength assessment before and after restoration of scapular musculature balance. Musculoskeletal Surgery. 2010; 94(3):119-25. [DOI:10.1007/s12306-010-0082-7] [DOI:10.1007/s12306-010-0082-7]
15. Seitz AL, McClelland RI, Jones WJ, Jean RA, Kardouni JR. A comparison of change in 3D scapular kinemativs with maximal contractions and force production with scapular muscle tests between asymptomatic overhead athletes with and without scapular dyskinesis. International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy. 2015; 10(3):309-18. [PMID] [PMCID] [PMID] [PMCID]
16. Hannah DC, Scibek JS, Carcia CR. strength profiles in healthy individuals with and without scapular dyskinesis. International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy. 2017; 12(3):305-13. [PMID] [PMCID] [PMID] [PMCID]
17. Smith J, Kotajarvi BR, Padgett DJ, Eischen JJ. Effect of scapular protraction and retraction on isometric shoulder elevation strength. Arch Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 2002; 83(3):367-70. [DOI:10.1053/apmr.2002.29666] [DOI:10.1053/apmr.2002.29666]
18. Uhl TL, Kibler WB, Gecewich B, Tripp BL. Evaluation of clinical assessment methods for scapular dyskinesis. Arthroscopy. 2009; 25(11):1240-8. [DOI:10.1016/j.arthro.2009.06.007] [DOI:10.1016/j.arthro.2009.06.007]
19. Johannessen EC, Reiten HS, Lovaas H, Maeland S, Juul-Kristensen B. Shoulder function, pain and health related quality of life in adults with joint hypermobility syndrome/Ehlers-Danlos syndrome-hypermobility type. Disability and Rehabilitation. 2016; 38(14):1382-90. [DOI:10.3109/09638288.2015.1102336] [DOI:10.3109/09638288.2015.1102336]
20. Harrison AK, Flatow EL. Subacromial impingement syndrome.Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. 2011; 19(11):701-8. [DOI:10.5435/00124635-201111000-00006] [DOI:10.5435/00124635-201111000-00006]
21. Lopes AD, Timmons MK, Grover M, Ciconelli RM, Michener LA. Visual scapular dyskinesis: Kinematics and muscle activity alterations in patients with subacromial impingement syndrome. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 2015; 96(2):298-306. [DOI:10.1016/j.apmr.2014.09.029] [DOI:10.1016/j.apmr.2014.09.029]
22. Nodehi-Moghaddam A, Ebrahimi E, Eyvazi M, Salavati M. [Comparison of three-dimentional scapular position and orientation between subjects with and without shoulder impingement (Persian)]. Archives of Rehabilitation. 2006; 7(1):14-21.
23. Remvig L, Jensen DV, Ward RC. Epidemiology of general joint hypermobility and basis for the proposed criteria for benign joint hypermobility syndrome: review of the literature. The Journal of Rheumatology. 2007; 34(4):804-9. [PMID] [PMID]
24. Huang TS, Ou HL, Huang CY, Lin JJ. Specific kinematics and associated muscle activation in individuals with scapular dyskinesis. Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery. 2015; 24(8):1227-34. [DOI:10.1016/j.jse.2014.12.022] [DOI:10.1016/j.jse.2014.12.022]
25. Nodehi Moghadam A, Rouhbakhsh Z, Ebrahimi I, Salavati M, Jafari D, Mohammadi Z. [Shoulder girdle muscles endurance in subjects with and without impingement syndrome (Persian)]. Journal of Rehabilitation. 2011; 12(2):56-63.
26. Joghatin Alibazi R, Nodehi Moghadam A, Zarrabi V, Bakhshi E, Nakhaei N. [The effect of muscle fatigue on normal biomechanics of shoulder girdle: a systematic review of the literature (Persian)]. Archives of Rehabilitation. 2015; 16(3):242-51.

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

© 2018 All Rights Reserved | Archives of Rehabilitation

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb