Volume 22, Issue 3 (Autumn 2021)                   jrehab 2021, 22(3): 298-319 | Back to browse issues page

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Sabzi Khoshnami M, Arshi M, Alipour F, Javadi M H, Rafiey H, Noruzi S. Guide to Social Work Intervention for Community Re-entry of Offenders With a History of Violence Against Individuals. jrehab 2021; 22 (3) :298-319
URL: http://rehabilitationj.uswr.ac.ir/article-1-2827-en.html
1- Department of Social Work, Social Welfare Management Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
2- Department of Social Work, Social Welfare Management Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran. , Fa.alipour@uswr.ac.ir
3- Department of Social Welfare, Social Welfare Management Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
4- Department of Social Work, Shahid Chamran Hospital, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Borujerd, Iran.
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he mental, social, economic, and cultural health of a society is closely related to its security. A large part of this sense of security depends on preventing crime and reducing its recurrence [1]. Violence against individuals constitutes a group of crimes that have increased recently [2]. According to the statistical yearbook of Iran in 2018, personal conflicts and strife have tripled from 247869 cases in 2006 to 753974 cases in 2018 [3]. Focusing on the post- imprisonment period is an essential strategy for social reintegration [4]. According to numerous studies, returning to society after the end of imprisonment is difficult for all people. It is accompanied by various problems such as unemployment, restrictions on communication with family and friends, financial instability, drug use, etc. These problems are compounded when a person is convicted of violence [6, 5]. O’Brien has conducted numerous studies on the issues and problems of women after imprisonment between 2001 and 2008. These studies have focused on the issues and problems of this period from the perspective of social work. She identified five categories of barriers in the areas of family support, housing, domestic violence, drug/alcohol abuse treatment, employment and economic well-being. According to her, removing these barriers has an influential role in rebuilding life after imprisonment [7].
The proper transfer of people from prison to society occurs when social rehabilitation and reintegration programs are developed and implemented based on their real needs. The output of this type of transfer increases the quality of life and reduces the recurrence of crime [8, 9, 10, 11]. The increasing tendency to community re-entry of prisoners over the past decade is due to two intertwined issues. First, policymakers know that failure to respond to the needs of individuals after imprisonment endangers social reintegration and public safety. Second, the interventions presented to offenders are effective for a limited number of them in reducing re-incarceration [12].
Most studies on the social reintegration of people with a history of imprisonment have been conducted in the United States and European countries. In Iran, less attention has been paid to the social issues and challenges of post-imprisonment life [7]. Furthermore, no protocol or guideline for social interventions of people released from prison is found in Iran. Neglecting this issue can increase the recurrence of crime and return to prison, as well as the spread of social harm [13]. Therefore, this study aims to develop a specialized social work intervention guideline to create appropriate conditions for successful community re-entry of offenders after release from prison.
Materials and Methods
In this study, to prepare a specialized social work intervention guideline, a qualitative method was used in the following seven steps: 
Identifying the dimensions of successful community re-entry and categorizing them (output of the qualitative section): In this step, 26 semi-structured interviews with individuals with a history of violence and with experts were conducted in 2019. For data analysis, we used Brown and Clarke’s (2006) six-step thematic analysis procedure [14].
Review of studies to prepare a matrix of dimensions of successful community re-entry (output of literature review): A search was conducted in the national and international databases on quantitative studies and protocols and guidelines for the community re-entry using MeSH keywords of “successful re-entry”, “re-entry”, “social reintegration”, “return to the community”, “re-entry successful”.
Preparing an initial pool of barriers and facilitators to successful community re-entry by combining two qualitative and literature review sections based on the emic (qualitative) and etic (literature review) approach of Whittemore and Knafl (2005). We used these tools to analyze and recognize the dimensions of successful community re-entry [15]. Also, thematic synthesis made it possible to identify barriers and facilitators besides similarities and differences [16].
Drafting the specialized intervention guideline: In this stage, an initial draft of the guideline was prepared by the research team based on the previous findings, compliance with existing protocols, and receiving feedback from experts. Five guidelines of “Handbook on the Prevention of Recidivism and the Social Reintegration of Offenders, United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) 2018” [17], “Guide to the rehabilitation and social reintegration of women prisoners: Implementation of the Bangkok Rules (2019)” [18], “Mapping Prisoner Reentry: An Action Research Guidebook [19]”, “Effective Case Management (implementation of effective practices that will support successful offender outcomes)” [20], and “the World Health Organization handbook for guideline development [21]” were used as a basis for drafting the specialized intervention guideline in this study. Review and development of the drafted guideline: It was done at a Focus Group Discussion (FGD) session.
Assessing the applicability of the designed guideline: It was done using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research And Evaluation (AGREE) tool [22]. The average total report of 10 experts for six domains was 85.7%, indicating that all experts approved the applicability of the guideline. Modifying based on suggestions and criticisms and finalizing the intervention guideline.
According to the experts and the literature based on the case management approach, the guideline draft was compiled by the research team focusing on the information obtained from both qualitative and quantitative parts. Experts in this field were used to review the content in an FGD session. The case management approach is commonly used for caring for people released from prison and those with a history of substance abuse disorders [23]. This approach has empirical scientific support [24]. According to this approach, clients have active participation in providing specialized interventions, and goals are achieved by relying on the interventions provided by social workers and client participation. Therefore, the guideline of specialized social work intervention for community re-entry of offenders based on the case management approach was presented in four main stages: 1) preparation for the case plan, 2) development of the case plan, 3) intervention and action, 4) monitoring and reviewing the intervention (Table 1). 

Discussion and Conclusion

Research shows that in the case management approach, adapting the severity of interventions to the assessed level of risk (e.g. more intensive strategies for high-risk offenders) leads to better outcomes [25]. Throughout the evaluation and intervention planning process, case managers act as a bridge between internal/external resources and individuals to achieve positive change. This bridge seeks to increase prisoners’ motivation and acquire clear cooperation between providers and recipients of services and continued care for people released from prison so that a successful community re-entry can finally be achieved [23]. 
The “Guide to the rehabilitation and social reintegration of women prisoners: Implementation of the Bangkok Rules” [18] is consistent with our guideline. This guideline identifies the various aspects of successful rehabilitation of female prisoners. The main focus is on specific programs and appropriate measures to address the underlying causes of the crime. This guideline covers a wide range of programs, including medical care, mental health care, substance abuse prevention and treatment programs, counseling, psychosocial support, individual and group training courses, employment and vocational training, housing, and more.
Several studies have shown that improving individuals’ psychosocial abilities, such as skills training in challenging situations and correcting communication skills, have significantly prevented the recurrence of violence against individuals [262728]. In the present study, the use of educational and counseling programs (individual and family) was considered in the case management program as one of the measures to overcome stressful situations. According to the findings, one of the barriers to community re-entry was stigmatization and rejection by others. Mirhosseini and Larijani (2018) and Kafashi and Eslami (2009) concluded that to prevent the recurrence of crime. For community re-entry of offenders, it is necessary to remove formal and informal labels applied by institutions, friends, family, and society. In the present study, by using social work methods, planning was done to identify these labels and inappropriate environments. Studies by Sutherland, Durkheim, and Cohen have also shown that inappropriate living environments are factors in the emergence and recurrence of crime. Individuals learn criminal behaviors by interacting with groups that carry criminal norms. Labeling causes social alienation, job loss, and leaving family and friends [29]. Therefore, the use of local development methods, social planning, and social action in identifying inappropriate environments, labeling factors, and implementing the necessary interventions in this guideline was recommended. Hezar Jaribi believed that the expansion of Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) in the form of neighborhood-based and facilitation offices could effectively control social harms comprehensively [30].
Another area highlighted in the guideline in this study was social support with a focus on family. Some studies have shown that the more people are supported and controlled by their family members after release from prison, the less likely they will commit a crime again. For this reason, one of the ways to re-enter the community is to be with family. In this regard, in the present study, group methods and attracting the participation and support of families in improving the situation of the target group were used. In addition to increasing the likelihood of community re-entry, family-centered interventions reduce aggressive behaviors and deviance in children [30]. Other studies have mentioned social support [31], supervision and interaction of family members during and after imprisonment, and socializing with friends [3233, 34].
An essential strategy in intervention guides and programs with a case management approach is to seek support from NGOs, charity centers, and other civic associations, given the limitations of government resources [35]. For this reason, in the present guideline, social workers are required to provide a variety of external and internal support for the target group referring to these centers. Support seeking is part of the specialized interventions of social workers that are done with the participation and cooperation of clients. Its effectiveness has been shown in various studies [3637]. They also use referral techniques to link the individual to the support resources. Using facilitation methods, social workers provide access to social resources and identify administrative barriers to service delivery. There is a relationship between all the mentioned interventions that lead to achieving the defined goals [38]. In this way, social workers, by various methods and techniques and using the participation, capacity, and capabilities of the individuals and their families, design a unique intervention program for them that can lead to their empowerment.
The outcome of this study was a guideline for social work intervention based on a case management approach for successful community re-entry and reduction of problems related to social rehabilitation. Policymakers and social workers as service providers in post-release care centers are recommended to apply the recommendations in this guideline for the social integration of individuals after the end of imprisonment. Future studies on the effectiveness of this specialized social work intervention guideline, considering local conditions, can help identify the influential factors of community re-entry of people released from prison, especially those convicted of violence against individuals.

Ethical Considerations
Compliance with ethical guidelines

This study was approved by the Ethics Committee of University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences (Code: IR.USWR.REC.1399.180).

This article is part of the findings of the PhD. dissertation of the first author at the Department of Social Work, University of Social Welfare Sciences and Rehabilitation.

Authors' contributions
All authors equally contributed to preparing this article.

Conflict of interest
The authors declared no conflict of interest.

The authors would like to thank the General Directorate of Prisons of Tehran Province and the Center for Social Services and Post-Exit Care of Tehran Province.

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Type of Study: Original | Subject: Social Worker
Received: 28/08/2020 | Accepted: 24/02/2021 | Published: 1/10/2021

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