Volume 19, Issue 3 (Autumn 2018)                   jrehab 2018, 19(3): 184-193 | Back to browse issues page

XML Persian Abstract Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Mirzaie H, Jamshidian E, Hosseini S A. Routines in Families of Children With Autism. jrehab 2018; 19 (3) :184-193
URL: http://rehabilitationj.uswr.ac.ir/article-1-2227-en.html
1- Department of Occupational Therapy, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran. , ho.mirzaie@uswr.ac.ir
2- Department of Occupational Therapy, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Abstract:   (7651 Views)
Objective Routines are a set of daily and regular activities that play an important role in the development of the child and the family. These activities include building the structure for daily life, developing social skills, academic skills, speech skills, facilitating family relationships, and creating a sense of belonging among family members. This study examines the routines of families of children with autism.
Materials & Methods Routines are a set of daily and regular activities that play an important role in the development of the child and the family. These activities include building the structure for daily life, developing social skills, academic skills, speech skills, facilitating family relationships, and creating a sense of belonging among family members. This study examines the routines of families of children with autism.
Results Routines are related to family health. However, following routines in the families of children with autism are difficult due to factors associated with the child such as lack of flexibility, problematic behaviors and sensory-processing problems; factors associated with care givers, such as parents’ anxiety or marital problems; and environmental factors such as the lack of access to autism healthcare services in less populated and remote areas. Thus, parents of children with autism face the challenge of creating and maintaining the routines. A child with autism usually takes the center of family structure and activities. This condition will eventually end in controlling the daily routines of families. In other words, a significant portion of the daily life of the family is linked to the needs of the child with autism. Some routines such as eating and sleeping have been specifically addressed as challenging routines. The structure of routines takes shape around the needs of the child, rather than the whole family, and in some cases, the needs of other family members are ignored. The presence of a child with autism in the family negatively affects the development of meaningful interactions. The pervasive nature of autism leads to inflexible, child-focused routines and limited emotional and social experiences during everyday life activities in their families. Despite the challenges that families of autistic children may have to participate in routines, these families try to engage in challenging routines, which have meaning and importance for them, to learn their child’s endurance. They do not give a chance to the child with autism to decide for their family and collaborate with family members.
Conclusion Despite the important role of routines in the growth and health of the child and the family, it seems that the disabling nature of autism with its many complications, which overshadows other family planning affect the quantity and quality of family participation in activities and developing meaningful routines. Although the development of a child with autism has a burden on the family, inability to create interactions, understanding the child, and communicating among family members makes the situation in the family more problematic. As a result, the families of children with autism are unable to create and maintain effective routines for the optimal participation of family members that eventually leads to the loss of family integrity and solidarity.
Full-Text [PDF 730 kb]   (2720 Downloads) |   |   Full-Text (HTML)  (2628 Views)  
Type of Study: Review | Subject: Occupational Therapy
Received: 28/08/2017 | Accepted: 30/05/2018 | Published: 15/10/2018

1. Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) data & statistics [Internet]. 2017 [Updated 2018 April 26]. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/autism/data.html
2. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of mental disorders: DSM-5. Washington D.C.: American Psychiatric Association; 2013.
3. Shiri V, Hosseini SA, Pishyareh E, Nejati V, Biglarian A. [Study the relationship of executive functions with behavioral symptoms in children with high-functioning autism (Persian)]. Archives of Rehabilitation. 2015; 16(3):208-17.
4. Humphry R. Young children's occupations: Explicating the dynamics of developmental processes. American Journal of Occupational Therapy. 2002; 56(2):171-9. [DOI:10.5014/ajot.56.2.171] [PMID] [DOI:10.5014/ajot.56.2.171]
5. Parham LD, Mailloux Z. Sensory integration. In: Case-Smith J, O'Brien J, editors. Occupational Therapy For Children. Toronto: Mosby; 2010.
6. Cosbey J, Johnston SS, Dunn ML. Sensory processing disorders and social participation. American Journal of Occupational Therapy. 2010; 64(3):462-73. [DOI:10.5014/ajot.2010.09076] [PMID] [DOI:10.5014/ajot.2010.09076]
7. Jamshidian E, Jalili N, Haghgoo H. [The effect of sensory processing abilities on participation of children with autism (Persian)]. Daneshvar Medicine. 2016; 23(120):33-44.
8. Baranek GT, Boyd BA, Poe MD, David FJ, Watson LR. Hyperresponsive sensory patterns in young children with autism, developmental delay, and typical development. American Journal on Mental Retardation. 2007; 112(4):233-45. [DOI:10.1352/0895-8017(2007)112[233:HSPIYC]2.0.CO;2]
9. Bagby MS, Dickie VA, Baranek GT. How sensory experiences of children with and without autism affect family occupations. American Journal of Occupational Therapy. 2012; 66(1):78-86. [DOI:10.5014/ajot.2012.000604] [PMID] [PMCID] [DOI:10.5014/ajot.2012.000604]
10. Schaaf RC, Toth-Cohen S, Johnson SL, Outten G, Benevides TW. The everyday routines of families of children with autism: Examining the impact of sensory processing difficulties on the family. Autism. 2011; 15(3):373-89. [DOI:10.1177/1362361310386505] [PMID] [DOI:10.1177/1362361310386505]
11. American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA). Occupational therapy practice framework: Domain and process. American Journal of Occupational Therapy. 2014; 68:1-48. [DOI:10.5014/ajot.2014.682006] [DOI:10.5014/ajot.2014.682006]
12. Boyd BA, McCarty CH, Sethi C. Families of children with autism: A synthesis of family routines literature. Journal of Occupational Science. 2014; 21(3):322-33. [DOI:10.1080/14427591.2014.908816] [DOI:10.1080/14427591.2014.908816]
13. Brown O, Fouche P, Coetzee M. Bouncing forward: Families living with a type I diabetic child. South African Family Practice. 2010; 52(6):536-41. [DOI:10.1080/20786204.2010.10874044] [DOI:10.1080/20786204.2010.10874044]
14. Rodger S, Umaibalan V. The routines and rituals of families of typically developing children compared with families of children with autism spectrum disorder: An exploratory study. British Journal of Occupational Therapy. 2011; 74(1):20-6. [DOI:10.4276/030802211X12947686093567] [DOI:10.4276/030802211X12947686093567]
15. Spagnola M, Fiese BH. Family routines and rituals: A context for development in the lives of young children. Infants & Young Children. 2007; 20(4):284-99. [DOI:10.1097/01.IYC.0000290352.32170.5a] [DOI:10.1097/01.IYC.0000290352.32170.5a]
16. Raeis-Dana M, Tabatabaei-Nia M, Kamali M, Shafaroudi N. [From diagnosis to coping: a journey with parents in the course of the disability of their children (Persian)]. Archives of Rehabilitation. 2009; 10(1):42-51.
17. Nazer M, Riyahi N, Mokhtaree M. [The effect of stress management training with cognitive behavioral style on stress and mental health of parents of children with intellectual disabilities (Persian)]. Archives of Rehabilitation. 2016; 17(1):32-41. [DOI:10.20286/jrehab-170130] [DOI:10.20286/jrehab-170130]
18. Kuhaneck HM, Madonna S, Novak A, Pearson E. Effectiveness of interventions for children with autism spectrum disorder and their parents: A systematic review of family outcomes. American Journal of Occupational Therapy. 2015; 69(5):1-14. [DOI:10.5014/ajot.2015.017855] [PMID] [DOI:10.5014/ajot.2015.017855]
19. Schieve LA, Blumberg SJ, Rice C, Visser SN, Boyle C. The relationship between autism and parenting stress. Pediatrics. 2007; 119(Supplement 1):S114-S21. [DOI:10.1542/peds.2006-2089Q] [PMID] [DOI:10.1542/peds.2006-2089Q]
20. Abbeduto L, Seltzer MM, Shattuck P, Krauss MW, Orsmond G, Murphy MM. Psychological well-being and coping in mothers of youths with autism, down syndrome, orfragile X syndrome. American Journal on Mental Retardation. 2004; 109(3):237-54. [DOI:10.1352/0895-8017(2004)1092.0.CO;2] https://doi.org/10.1352/0895-8017(2004)109<237:PWACIM>2.0.CO;2 [DOI:10.1352/0895-8017(2004)1092.0.CO;2]
21. Lee LC, Harrington RA, Louie BB, Newschaffer CJ. Children with autism: Quality of life and parental concerns. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 2008; 38(6):1147-60. [DOI:10.1007/s10803-007-0491-0] [PMID] [DOI:10.1007/s10803-007-0491-0]
22. DeGrace BW. The everyday occupation of families with children with autism. American Journal of Occupational Therapy. 2004; 58(5):543-50. [DOI:10.5014/ajot.58.5.543] [PMID] [DOI:10.5014/ajot.58.5.543]
23. Lyons AM, Leon SC, Phelps CER, Dunleavy AM. The impact of child symptom severity on stress among parents of children with ASD: The moderating role of coping styles. Journal of Child and Family Studies. 2010; 19(4):516-24. [DOI:10.1007/s10826-009-9323-5] [DOI:10.1007/s10826-009-9323-5]
24. Mohammadpour M, Rassafiani M, Ahmadi KM, Behnia F, Haghgoo HA, Biglarian A. Comparing the time-use of mothers with autistic children with that of mothers with healthy ones. Journal of Research in Rehabilitation Sciences. 2014; 10(1):182-92.
25. Fiese BH, Tomcho TJ, Douglas M, Josephs K, Poltrock S, Baker T. A review of 50 years of research on naturally occurring family routines and rituals: Cause for celebration. Journal of Family Psychology. 2002; 16(4):381-90. [DOI:10.1037/0893-3200.16.4.381] [PMID] [DOI:10.1037/0893-3200.16.4.381]
26. Jensen EW, James SA, Boyce WT, Hartnett SA. The family routines inventory: Development and validation. Social Science & Medicine. 1983; 17(4):201-11. [DOI:10.1016/0277-9536(83)90117-X] [DOI:10.1016/0277-9536(83)90117-X]
27. Von Elm E, Altman DG, Egger M, Pocock SJ, Gøtzsche PC, Vandenbroucke JP. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology [STROBE] statement: Guidelines for reporting observational studies. Gaceta Sanitaria. 2008; 22(2):144-50. [DOI:10.1157/13119325] [PMID] [DOI:10.1157/13119325]
28. Long AF, Godfrey M. An evaluation tool to assess the quality of qualitative research studies. International Journal of Social Research Methodology. 2004; 7(2):181-96. [DOI:10.1080/1364557032000045302] [DOI:10.1080/1364557032000045302]
29. Downs ML. Leisure routines: Parents and children with disability sharing occupation. Journal of Occupational Science. 2008; 15(2):105-10. [DOI:10.1080/14427591.2008.9686616] [DOI:10.1080/14427591.2008.9686616]
30. McAuliffe T, Vaz S, Falkmer T, Cordier R. A comparison of families of children with autism spectrum disorders in family daily routines, service usage, and stress levels by regionality. Developmental Neurorehabilitation. 2017; 20(8):483-90. [DOI:10.1080/17518423.2016.1236844] [PMID] [DOI:10.1080/17518423.2016.1236844]
31. Pourhidar M, Dadkhah A. The Effects of Individual and Group Training on General Health and Stress of Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Iranian Rehabilitation Journal. 2015;13(4):110-5.
32. Larson E. Caregiving and autism: How does children's propensity for routinization influence participation in family activities? OTJR: Occupation, Participation and Health. 2006; 26(2):69-79. [DOI:10.1177/153944920602600205] [DOI:10.1177/153944920602600205]
33. Rogers LG, Magill-Evans J, Rempel GR. Mothers' challenges in feeding their children with autism spectrum disorder: Managing more than just picky eating. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities. 2012; 24(1):19-33. [DOI:10.1007/s10882-011-9252-2] [DOI:10.1007/s10882-011-9252-2]
34. Suarez MA, Atchison BJ, Lagerwey M. Phenomenological examination of the mealtime experience for mothers of children with autism and food selectivity. American Journal of Occupational Therapy. 2014; 68(1):102-7. [DOI:10.5014/ajot.2014.008748] [PMID] [DOI:10.5014/ajot.2014.008748]
35. Marquenie K, Rodger S, Mangohig K, Cronin A. Dinnertime and bedtime routines and rituals in families with a young child with an autism spectrum disorder. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal. 2011; 58(3):145-54. [DOI:10.1111/j.1440-1630.2010.00896.x] [PMID] [DOI:10.1111/j.1440-1630.2010.00896.x]
36. Thorne SE, Radford MJ, McCormick J. The multiple meanings of long-term gastrostomy in children with severe disability. Journal of Pediatric Nursing. 1997; 12(2):89-99. [DOI:10.1016/S0882-5963(97)80029-2] [DOI:10.1016/S0882-5963(97)80029-2]
37. Fulkerson JA, Story M, Neumark-Sztainer D, Rydell S. Family meals: Perceptions of benefits and challenges among parents of 8to 10 year old children. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 2008; 108(4):706-9. [DOI:10.1016/j.jada.2008.01.005] [PMID] [DOI:10.1016/j.jada.2008.01.005]
38. Woods J, Kashinath S, Goldstein H. Effects of embedding caregiver-implemented teaching strategies in daily routines on children's communication outcomes. Journal of Early Intervention. 2004; 26(3):175-93. [DOI:10.1177/105381510402600302] [DOI:10.1177/105381510402600302]
39. Schlebusch L, Samuels AE, Dada S. South African families raising children with autism spectrum disorders: Relationship between family routines, cognitive appraisal and family quality of life. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research. 2016; 60(5):412-23. [DOI:10.1111/jir.12292] [PMID] [DOI:10.1111/jir.12292]

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:

Send email to the article author

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

© 2024 CC BY-NC 4.0 | Archives of Rehabilitation

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb